Irodov I. E. Problems in General Physics

I. E. Irodov. Problems in General Physics. — Moscow: Mir Publishers, 1988.

This book of problems is intended as a textbook for students at higher educational institutions studying advanced course in physics. Besides, because of the great number of simple problems it may be used by students studying a general course in physics.
The book contains about 1900 problems with hints for solving the most complicated ones.

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For students’ convenience each chapter opens with a time-saving summary of the principal formulas for the relevant area of physics. As a rule the formulas are given without detailed explanations since a student, starting solving a problem, is assumed to know the meaning of the quantities appearing in the formulas. Explanatory notes are only given in those cases when misunderstanding may arise.
CONTENTS
Preface……………………….. 5
A Few Hints for Solving the Problems………….. 9
Notation ………………………………………………..10
PART ONE. PHYSICAL FUNDAMENTALS OF MECHANICS …. 11
1.1. Kinematics…………………..11
1.2. The Fundamental Equation of Dynamics………………20
1.3. Laws of Conservation of Energy, Momentum, and Angular Momentum………..30
1.4. Universal Gravitation………………………………..43
1.5. Dynamics of a Solid Body…………………………….47
1.6. Elastic Deformations of a Solid Body………………….58
1.7. Hydrodynamics……………………………………62
1.8. Relativistic Mechanics………………………………67
PART TWO. THERMODYNAMICS AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS … 75
2.1. Equation of the Gas State. Processes………………….75
2.2. The First Law of Thermodynamics. Heat Capacity……….78
2.3. Kinetic Theory of Gases. Boltzmann’s Law and Maxwell’s Distribution ……..82
2.4. The Second Law of Thermodynamics. Entropy…………..88
2.5. Liquids. Capillary Effects…………………………..93
2.6. Phase Transformations………………………………96
2.7. Transport Phenomena………………………………100
PART THREE. ELECTRODYNAMICS ……………………….105
3.1. Constant Electric Field in Vacuum………………….105
3.2. Conductors and Dielectrics in an Electric Field…………Ill
3.3. Electric Capacitance. Energy of an Electric Field…………118
3.4. Electric Current……………………………………125
3.5. Constant Magnetic Field. Magnetics ………………….136
3.6. Electromagnetic Induction. Maxwell’s Equations…………147
3.7. Motion of Charged Particles in Electric and Magnetic Fields 160
PART FOUR. OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES………………….166
4.1. Mechanical Oscillations …………………………….166
4.2. Electric Oscillations………………………………..180
4.3. Elastic Waves. Acoustics…………………………..188
4.4. Electromagnetic Waves. Radiation……………………193
PART FIVE. OPTICS……………………………………..199
5.1. Photometry and Geometrical Optics ………………….199
5.2. Interference of Light………………………………210
5.3. Diffraction of Light ………………………………216
5.5. Dispersion and Absorption of Light………………….234
5.6. Optics of Moving Sources …………………………237
5.7. Thermal Radiation. Quantum Nature of Light…………..240
PART SIX. ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS………………..246
6.1. Scattering of Particles. Rutherford-Bohr Atom…………246
6.2. Wave Properties of Particles. Schrodinger Equation …. 251
6.3. Properties of Atoms. Spectra ……………………….257
6.4. Molecules and Crystals…………………………….264
6.5. Radioactivity……………………………………..270
6.6. Nuclear Reactions………………………………….274
6.7. Elementary Particles ………………………………278
ANSWERS AND SOLUTIONS …………………………….281
APPENDICES…………………………………………….365
1. Basic Trigonometrical Formulas……………………….365
2. Sine Function Values………………………………..366
3. Tangent Function Values…………………………….367
4. Common Logarithms………………………………..368
5. Exponential Functions………………………………370
6. Greek Alphabet……………………………………372
7. Numerical Constants and Approximations………………..372
8. Some Data on Vectors………………………………372
9. Derivatives and Integrals…………………………….373
10. Astronomical Data………………………………….374
11. Density of Substances …………………………….374
12. Thermal Expansion Coefficients ……………………..375
13. Elastic Constants. Tensile Strength……………………375
14. Saturated Vapour Pressure…………………………..375
15. Gas Constants……………………………………..376
16. Some Parameters of Liquids and Solids………………..376
17. Permittivities……………………………………..377
18. Resistivities of Conductors…………………………..377
19. Magnetic Susceptibilities of Para- and Diamagnetics……….377
20. Refractive Indices………………………………….378
21. Rotation of the Plane of Polarization………………..378
22. Work Function of Various Metals……………………..379
23. К Band Absorption Edge…………………………….379
24. Mass Abso^tion Coefficients…………………………379
25. Ionization Potentials of Atoms……………………….380
26. Mass of Light Atoms………………………………..380
27. Half-life Values of Radionuclides ……………………380
28. Units of Physical Quantities…………………………381
29. The Basic Formulas of Electrodynamics in the SI and Gaussian Systems…..383
30. Fundamental Constants………………………………386

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